## March 22, 1986

**Using the Power of Databases in Educational Computing**

Craig Lehman & Richard Miller, East Carolina University

Software packages such as dBase and KnowledgeMan offer computer educators all the programming flexibility of BASIC, along with powerful and sophisticated data management capabilities suitable for generating tests, keeping records and test scores, and statistically analyzing question responses. In addition, they enable the instructor with computer—owning students to electronically output customized tests and tutorials and record test scores with no more hardware than a standard PC and hard disk. In this presentation, we demonstrate a dBase application program capable of performing these functions, and then illustrate some of its uses with a set of basic logic materials developed by one of the authors.

**PDL as a Guide to CAl Design**

Frank Williams, Ron Messerich, & Richard Rink, Eastern Kentucky University

A portion of an extensive philosophy CAl project will be used as a “case history” for illustrating how.software design can be facilitated by the use of software engineering techniques such as: analysis of software requirements, hierarchical design of program modules, use of a program design language (“pseudocode”), and transition from pseudocode to a programming language. Some familiarity with programming concepts (e.g. subroutine, procedure, input, output, files, variable, array) will be assumed, but expertise with a programming language will not be needed.

**The Stanford Logic Programs: VALID and EXCHECK** Tryg Ager, Stanford University

Since 1972, introductory symbolic logic has been taught entirely by computer at Stanford University. This discussion will reflect on that lengthy experience, focusing on: (1) Overall design and pedagogical strategies needed for large—scale CAl; (2) Software engineering considerations which have made VALID both portabale and ?asily maintainable; and (3) Intimations of future applications of computation in the philosophy curriculum.

**A Computerized Logic Course**

Joseph Hanna & Herbert Hendry, Michigan State University

**WANG’S ALGORITHM: Teaching and Programming**

Robert Cavalier, Towsori State University

Christopher Dreisbach, Villa Julie College

This workshop will explore the concrete applications of “a computer approach” to the teaching of symbolic logic courses. The workshop will focus on the teaching and programming of WANG’s Algorithm as a method for understanding and determining the validity and invalidity of arguments in sentential logic. Topics to be included are the following: (1) syllabus design for incorporating a computer approach to logic; (2) strategies for teaching WANG’s Algorithm; (3) a CAl program for WANG’s algorithm; and (4) computer implementation of WANG’s Algorithm using PASCAL. The text that serves as the inspiration for this workshop is Logic: A Computer Approach by Schagrin, Rapaport, and Dipert (McGraw—Hill, 1985).

**Diagnosis and Advice Givers in Proof Checking Programs: A Comparison of EMIL and L0G250**

Richard DeWitt, Ohio State University

This presentation bears upon proof—checking programs, revolving around the two basic ways of aiding students in constructing symbolic proofs. The first is diagnosis of student mistakes, with an eye toward accurately pointing out mistakes in ways helpful to the student. The second is advice, at any point in a proof, on how to proceed with constructing that proof. Two strategies employed by currently running proof checkers which bear on the first approach are discussed. Following this, two advice—giving algorithms are presented and discussed.

**Working Lunch: Some Thoughts on Software**

**Toward ‘Intelligent’ CAl in Logic: Plan—building and Subgnaling in Proofs**

Randall Dipert, SUNY at Fredonia

For the majority of students in logic, one of the most difficult tasks to master is the planning of proofs. In my presentation I discuss two issues: (1) the importance of planning in proofs and the transformation of main goals into subgoals in proofs and (2) the development of a computer (intelligent) tutor that interacts with the student concerning an ideal plan of a proof, the student’s actual plan, and mistakes in implementing the actual plan.

**The CRITIC: A Program for Critical Thinking**

Mark Rattersby, Capilano College

“The Critic” is a program in critical thinking that provides students with opportunity to practice analysis and criticism with immediate feedback. The mindlessness of multiple choice answers is avoided by involving the student in his own evaluation and by providing opportunity for the student to input disagreement. In this manner the program utilizes and encourages the student’s intelligent participation in his own learning. The presentation will include a discussion of the pedagogy and the programming techniques that capture that pedagogy, a demonstration of the program, and a report on its effectiveness.

**The Use of Pilot in Writing CAl Programs**

Richard Wright, University of Toledo

This workshop will help introduce participants to the use of authoring languages for preparing computer—aided instructional materials. There will be two goals for the workshop: (1) presentation of material on the form and structure of computer”-assisted learning materials; and (2) the use of authoring languages in the preparation of those materials. The workshop will use as its demonstration language “Super—Pilot” on the Apple computer. The workshop will include a brief presentation, a discussion, and a hands—on use of the program under discussion. There will also be various sample programs available for participants to both use and examine.

**Panel Discussion: Present and Future Prospects for CAl in Philosophy**

Tryg Ager, Stanford University

Preston Covey, Carnegie—Mellon University

Randall Dipert, SUNY at Fredonia

Jim Moor, Dartmouth College

Nelson Pole, Cleveland State (Moderator)

## March 23, 1986

**The Use of PASCAL for CAl in Logic**

Marvin Croy, University of North Carolina

This workshop will primarily explore the memory management and graphics capabilities of the APPLE (USCD) PASCAL environment as they relate to constructing logic CAl programs. The main topics to be covered include: (1) a general overview of the operating system; (2) the use of dynamic data structures to store logical expressions and other data; (3) the operation of virtual memory management; and (4) the control of screen display via the TURTLEGRAPHICS facility.

**Using ‘Lotus’ for CAl in Logic**

Dean Cook, Villa Julie College

In this workshop the applications of Lotus 1—2—3 to CAl are discussed and evaluated. Fundamental spreadsheet concepts s as cell, formula, and function are utilized in the developmer f logic exercises. Advanced programming concepts such as r a-e used in the construction of menu driven, customized sprea designed for logic students.

**Teaching Formal Logic with Prolog**

Michele LaRusch, Middlehury College

The workshop will show how programs in “Prolog” can serve as exercises exemplifying the abstract logical concepts and principles presented in traditional logic texts. It will be emphasized that the programs are written in such a way that a instructor using only his or her knowledge of logic can easiij understand, run and redesign them. Students who learn to write such programs will be learning both logic and the programr language “Prolog” at the same time. In this way, programming :n “Prolog” provides instructors with a unique approach to CAl.

**BERTIE—II, Personal Computers, and Networks**

Jim Moor, Dartmouth College

BERTIE, a computer program for teaching natural deduction, was among the first exportable programs for CAl in logic. BERTIE-II is an updated version designed for personal computers. This workshop will discuss the problems of pedagogy, programming and publication in producing CAl. In particular, it will emphasize some of the pitfalls in developing and exporting CAl. It will also involve a report of the encouraging, though somewhat sobering, results from a recent study done at Dartmouth Co1le about the use of CAl, personal computers, and a computer network.

**Programmable Illustrations for an Introduction to the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence**

Donald Keyworth, Drake University

To introduce undergraduates to the philosophically fascinating but unruly question “Can machines think?” I have them run a series of simple BASIC programs designed to illustrate some of the facets of Turing’s imitation game. Among the programs presented in this workshop are the following: (1) a word—based version of MASTERMIND; (2) a simplified version of ELIZA; (3) a trick implementation of Twenty Questions; (4) a poem—generator; and (5) an addition program (for a robot who knows nothing about numbers). Source—code listings of these routines will be provided, and discussion will be entertained of their philosophical implications and limitations.

**Roundtable on Teaching Computer Ethics**

Chair: Richard Lineback, Bowling Green State University